industrial carriers

Industrial carriers are vessels operated by large corporations to provide transportation essential to the processes of manufacture and distribution. These vessels are run to ports and on schedules determined by the specific needs of the owners. The ships may belong to the corporations or may be chartered. For example, the Bethlehem Steel Corp. maintains a fleet of Great Lakes ore carriers, a number of specialized ships that haul ore from South America to Baltimore, Maryland, and a fleet of dry-cargo ships that transports steel products from Baltimore to the Pacific coast. Many oil companies maintain large fleets of deep-sea tankers, towboats, and river barges to carry petroleum to and from refineries. The ships often operate under contracts of affreightment.